Best kind of marijuana plant for cbd oil

What Is Cannabis?

A family of flowering plants with industrial, medicinal, and recreational uses

Angelica Bottaro is a writer with expertise in many facets of health including chronic disease, Lyme disease, nutrition as medicine, and supplementation.

Verywell Health articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and healthcare professionals. These medical reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more.

Meredith Bull, ND, is a licensed naturopathic doctor with a private practice in Los Angeles, California.

Cannabis is the name used to describe a family of flowering plants that come from the Cannabaceae family. There are several different species of cannabis, all of which contain more than 100 cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds that bind to cannabinoid receptors throughout the body leading to a number of possible effects, including feelings of intoxication and pain relief.

Jessica Olah / Verywell

The History of Cannabis

Cannabis is believed to have originated in Mongolia and southern Siberia, although some maintain that the plant could be found in the early years in South Asia, Afghanistan, and the Huang River Valley in northern China. Professor Ernest Abel believed that the plant was among one of the first widely cultivated in the world and is over 12,000 years old.

Ancient cultures used cannabis for its medicinal properties. Burned seeds in graves of shamans could be found as early as 500 B.C. suggesting that the psychoactive properties could have been utilized during ceremonies and healing rituals.

In America, the plant was grown by colonists in the 1500s for use in creating textiles and rope, with the seeds being consumed as food. Some evidence suggests that the medicinal use of cannabis could have begun as early as 400 A.D.

However, it wasn’t until the middle of the 19th century that the United States saw its use as medicine in the United States. This was following the discovery made by an Irish doctor studying in India, who found that the use of cannabis extracts could relieve gastrointestinal symptoms in those with cholera.

The recreational use of cannabis is thought to have begun as early as 900 B.C. when the Scythians, a group of Iranian nomads, were believed to have burned the seeds to inhale the smoke containing the psychoactive ingredient.


There are four main types of cannabis and they all have their own active compounds. Each type or strain can be used for a variety of different things depending on their levels of each ingredient and how they are harvested.


Cannabis sativa is a species of cannabis plant that tends to be higher on the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) scale than other variations, although it does contain cannabidiol (CBD) as well.

It is used for medicinal, recreational, and industrial (hemp) purposes. C. sativa plants are tall and lankier than other cannabis plants and can reach up to 20 feet in height.


Cannabis indica plants are lower in THC and higher in CBD when compared to C. sativa. This gives them less psychoactive properties and they are often used for medicinal purposes in people who wish to avoid feeling intoxication but would like the same ailment relief.

The C. indica plant is short and bushy in appearance and takes less time to reach maturity.


Cannabis ruderalis is the type of cannabis plant used the least. The plant is low in THC like the indica plant but does not contain adequate levels of CBD when it comes to medicinal effects.

It is often in conjunction with the C. sativa or C. indica types of cannabis to create hybrid versions as it doesn’t have a high potency unless mixed with other strains.


A hybrid version of cannabis occurs when two or more of the types of cannabis plants are crossed, creating a new species. They are generally equated to being the offspring of cannabis parents from two different categories.

Hybrid strains are created when farmers want to take the best of both plants to encourage the growth of a superior plant. The breeding of different types of cannabis plants is always experimental, and there are endless variations to choose from depending on the type and strain of the cannabis plant being used.

Cannabis plants have many different uses depending on the species, extraction method, dosing form, and amount. Each part of the plant has a different level of chemical compounds making it versatile for use across a wide variety of mediums. The uses of cannabis are also highly dependent on the extraction process.

Hemp comes from the Cannabis sativa variation of the plant and is widely used for industrial purposes, although the seeds have been cultivated as a food. Hemp contains bast fiber and its physical properties are different from other types of cannabis plants.

The cannabis plant that can be used to create hemp is generally slender with small flowers and spike-like clusters. The fibers are taken from the plant following an extensive process.

First, the stalks are retted, dried, and crushed. They are then shaken to separate from the wood portion of the stem with the fibers being released. Each plant can produce a fiber strand that is up to 5.8 feet. Hemp fibers can be used for:

  • Twine
  • Yarn
  • Rope
  • Cable
  • String
  • Artificial sponges
  • Course fabrics such a burlap and canvas
  • Fabrics
  • Bioplastics

Hemp seeds are rich in protein, magnesium, and fiber and are often sold as a health food. They can be added to smoothies and salads, or transformed into a dairy-free milk alternative. Hemp can also be used to create an oil substance that is used to make different types of paints and varnishes, or soaps and cooking oil.


The medicinal use of cannabis has been a controversial topic because of legal issues surrounding its use. Medical cannabis is derived from the Cannabis sativa plant, and both THC and CBD can be used for a variety of different ailments.

The most common use for medicinal cannabis is the management of chronic pain in efforts to lessen the need for opioids or over-the-counter drugs such as ibuprofen. Research has found that both THC and CBD can have a direct and positive effect on neuropathic pain, however, evidence to support its efficacy on other types of pain is not conclusive.

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There have been major studies regarding the use of medicinal cannabis for a variety of other conditions, especially with the substance being decriminalized and legalized for medicinal use in many states and countries. Evidence suggests that the following conditions could benefit from the use of medicinal cannabis including:

People with these health conditions saw relief from their chronic pain because of the common pathway that leads to the worsening of their symptoms and the effect that cannabis has on neuropathic pain.

Medical cannabis has also been the subject of research to determine if it can help people manage other conditions such as:

  • Nausea
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Wasting syndrome associated with HIV
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Rare forms of epilepsy
  • Dravet syndrome
  • Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
  • Cancer
  • Eating disorders
  • Muscle spasms

Although more research is needed and will continue to be done with the widespread legalization of cannabis for medical use, the only uses that have seen a vast confirmation are chronic pain, nausea and vomiting, and tight or stiff muscles caused by MS.


Since cannabis can provide a level of intoxication, many Americans have used it as a recreational drug. Over 94 million Americans have admitted to using cannabis as a recreational drug at least once in their lifetimes, with 11.8 million young adults admitting to using in 2018 alone.

Although some evidence suggests that the use of cannabis can benefit those with mental health disorders, it has also been found that recreational and regular use can lead to the onset or worsening of symptoms associated with depression, anxiety, and psychosis.

Cannabis for recreational use can act as both a depressant and stimulant. This means that the desired effects differ from person to person and from type of cannabis used.

As a depressant, cannabis can slow brain function that leads to calmed nerves and relaxation. As a stimulant, cannabis can increase heart rate and blood pressure. It’s been suggested that the stimulant effects of cannabis can have a positive effect on both energy levels and attention span.

The way cannabis affects people will vary widely, so no one person can tell how the level of intoxication will affect them. Research has shown that up to 30% of people who use cannabis recreationally develop an addiction or dependence on the substance due to the brain adapting to having it in the system.

Forms of Cannabis

The different forms of cannabis are derived from the plant in various ways and for various uses. Almost all forms of the plant have psychoactive properties when ingested, however, the strength of intoxication felt through ingestion will vary depending on the level of THC.

Dried or Powdered Leaves

Perhaps the most popular form used, the buds and leaves of the Cannabis plant can be dried. The buds, leaves, and stems contain the active chemicals that lead to feelings of pain relief or intoxication, and thus, many people opt for this form of cannabis for both recreational and medicinal uses.

One downside to the dried leaves method of ingestion is that they are more likely inhaled through burning, which can lead to the ingestion of harmful chemicals created in the smoke. When the smoke comes into contact with the lungs, the chemical ingredients are easily absorbed into the body.

Oil or Tincture

Cannabis can also be extracted into a tincture or oil for ingestion. Tinctures are used more commonly in medicinal areas because they have a high concentration of the active compounds that lead to therapeutic effects. They also offer an easier way to control the dosage, thus limiting adverse side effects.


Hashish is created using the sticky resin of the cannabis plant. It is generally smoked in the same way that the dried leaves are. It is also considered to be of a higher potency because it lacks inactive organic ingredients that can be found in the leaves, buds, and stems of the cannabis plant.

Tea or Juice

For digestive issues, tea or juice using the cannabis plant can be an effective method of ingestion. This method is used to avoid harmful irritations caused by the inhalation of smoke.

Cannabis is more often seen in tea form in cultures outside of the United States. The effects of cannabis when ingested through tea form take longer to come on but last longer than when smoked. The dried leaves are steeped.

Topical Applications

Cannabis-infused lotions, balms, and oils are absorbed through the skin for localized relief of pain, soreness, and inflammation. Topicals are often chosen by people who want the therapeutic benefits of marijuana without the mood-altering effects.


Although new research suggests that the use of cannabis can benefit those with certain health conditions, there are many health risks to consider. The side effects of using cannabis on a regular basis will affect different people in various ways, but some common short-term side effects of the use of cannabis include:  

  • Paranoia
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Anxiety
  • Racing heartbeat
  • Sleepiness
  • Short-term memory loss
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Impaired cognition
  • Damage to blood vessels and lungs if smoked
  • Decreased blood pressure
  • Delusions

When the use of cannabis is continued over a longer period of time, other effects can occur. The long-term risks for using cannabis either recreationally or medicinally include:  

  • Loss of memory
  • Loss of concentration
  • Lowered IQ
  • Diminished decision-making abilities
  • Bronchitis, increased chest mucus, and frequent lung infections when smoked

Some research also suggests that the prolonged and frequent use of cannabis can lead to a heightened risk of developing psychosis or other mental health-related diseases, although more research is needed in the area to see why that is and how the outcomes are affected by cannabis use.  


The use of cannabis has been a hot button topic across the United States because it has been largely illegal in many states. Currently, it is legalized, approved for medicinal use, or decriminalized in many states, although it is still fully illegal in eight states. Federally, it remains classified as a Schedule I drug with no recognized medical use and a high potential abuse.

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For states such as Colorado and Washington, the full legalization of cannabis has led to a boom in recreational, medicinal, and industrial uses. It has also opened up doors to an economic market that has been largely untouched due to the legalities that surrounded the use and production of cannabis.

A Word From Verywell

It has been reported that almost 100 million Americans now live in an area where access to cannabis is easier than ever. The use of marijuana for medical reasons could be a turning point when it comes to battling diseases and the opioid crisis that has plagued the country for decades.

While more research needs to be done in the realm of the use of cannabis, a few things are clear. Pain relief is on the list of things it can definitely do. The fact that hemp can be a catalyst for creating biodegradable plastics and other textiles that are better for the environment should be more than enough to have people give the plant another look.

Cannabis isn’t just a plant that can cause intoxication. It’s a versatile gift from Mother Nature that, when used correctly, could be the next big thing in medicinal and industrial products.

Cannabis Indica vs. Sativa: What Are the Differences?

Comparing the two main species of medical marijuana plants

Naveed Saleh, MD, MS, is a medical writer and editor covering new treatments and trending health news.

Verywell Health articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and healthcare professionals. These medical reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more.

Rochelle Collins, DO, is a board-certified family medicine doctor currently practicing in Bloomfield, Connecticut.

Verywell Health content is rigorously reviewed by a team of qualified and experienced fact checkers. Fact checkers review articles for factual accuracy, relevance, and timeliness. We rely on the most current and reputable sources, which are cited in the text and listed at the bottom of each article. Content is fact checked after it has been edited and before publication. Learn more.

Marley Hall is a writer and fact checker who is certified in clinical and translational research. Her work has been published in medical journals in the field of surgery, and she has received numerous awards for publication in education.

Despite a myriad of special names for medical marijuana you can find at a dispensary—Northern Lights, Blueberry, Sour Diesel, and many more—much of these strains can be categorized into just two main species of cannabis plant: Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa.

It’s commonly believed that Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica produce different effects. While there is some basis for generalization, some experts argue that this stance is misleading because the amount of the effect-inducing compounds in each individual plant can differ.

This article discusses the chemical and physical differences between Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica and the effects each is said to have.

Is Cannabis the Same As Marijuana?

Cannabis is the term used for the hundreds of plant species commonly categorized as Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis (a type rarely cultivated in the U.S.) Marijuana is a term generally used to describe cannabis that is used recreationally, although “medical marijuana” is a widely accepted term for the use of cannabis for health reasons.

Physical Appearance

You can immediately notice a difference between the indica plants and sativa plants just by looking at them.

Indica plants usually grow up to two to four feet, have broader leaves, and are compactly branched, giving them a bushy appearance.

Anton Petrus / Getty Images

Sativa plants are typically larger than indica plants, with the ability to grow anywhere between five and 18 feet or more. They are thin-leaved and often have few branches.

Pramote Polyamate / Getty Images


Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are two compounds known to produce the effects of cannabis. These compounds, called cannabinoids, affect the brain differently.

CBD and THC work by interacting with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is mainly responsible for maintaining homeostasis—the body’s ability to maintain balance in internal processes like temperature, immune responses, and mood.

THC and CBD can be found in both sativa and indica plants. Though the content of each can vary in every individual plant, sativa plants typically produce more THC than CBD, while indica plants usually make more CBD than THC.

Still, some experts propose that the terms indica and sativa only be considered as indicators of the different species when it comes to height, branching, and leaf size—not effects, since THC and CBD amounts within a plant species are not standard.

CBD-to-THC Ratios

The amount of CBD and THC in a product or plant is often depicted as a ratio, or a comparison of the amount of one to that of the other. For example, a CBD-to-THC ratio of 1:1 means that there is an equal amount of CBD and THC in a given product or plant. A CBD-to-THC ratio of 15:1 means there is 15 times the amount of CBD than THC.

How They Work in the Body

THC is commonly known to produce a “high” with effects like sleepiness, euphoria, and impaired perception and movement. Studies also suggest that THC may be able to play a role in decreasing pain.

It’s capable of causing such effects by binding to the following cannabinoid receptors found throughout the body:

  • CB1 receptors: CB1 receptors are highly abundant in the brain. These receptors help control many brain-related processes that influence factors like learning and memory, emotion, social behaviors, and balance. These are the main receptors that THC binds to, producing the “high” effect.
  • CB2 receptors: CB2 receptors are abundantly found in body tissues that play roles in immune function, such as the tonsils, spleen, and thymus. These receptors help promote homeostasis in the body by regulating inflammatory and immune responses. THC does bind to these receptors, although not as much as it does with CB1 receptors.

How CBD produces its effects is less understood. CBD is commonly known to decrease pain and inflammation, prevent seizures, and reduce symptoms of mental health disorders such as anxiety.

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But CBD does so without the “high” experienced with THC, as CBD does not bind to either of the cannabinoid receptors mentioned. Instead, it’s believed that CBD affects how THC binds with these receptors.

Research reveals that CBD seems to decrease THC’s intoxicating effects and possibly allow more positive outcomes like decreased nausea.

It’s also known that CBD interacts with other non-ECS receptors, enzymes, and cellular structures that influence factors like pain and inflammation. Some even propose that there may be a third unknown receptor that CBD binds to.

Although THC and CBD are the main compounds in Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica, there are other cannabinoids and compounds within them such that can contribute to effects. Examples include as cannabigerol (CBG) and terpenes. Research is ongoing to determine how much of an influence such substances possibly have.

How They Make You Feel

You may have heard that cannabis sativa causes an uplifting and energetic feeling or “high,” whereas indica plants cause more of a relaxing feeling. However, the research behind this is limited.

Subjective results from a small Internet survey (95 research participants) put out by the Western University of Health Sciences may provide some insight on clinical differences between indicas and sativas. Here are some notable results from the survey of online marijuana users:

  • With respect to specific medical conditions, survey respondents felt that indica helped with nonmigraine headaches, neuropathy, spasticity, seizures, joint pain, and glaucoma.
  • With respect to medical conditions, survey respondents expressed sativa preference only for treating weight loss.
  • Online marijuana users expressed no difference between indicas and sativas when addressing HIV infection, migraines, multiple sclerosis, cancer, muscle pain, arthritis, fibromyalgia, trauma, orthopedic problems, and other painful conditions.
  • With respect to symptoms, respondents expressed indica preference for pain management, help with sleep, help with sedation, and a “good high.”
  • With respect to symptoms, respondents expressed a sativa preference for enhancing energy.
  • Researchers concluded that indicas were preferred when treating medical conditions, whereas sativas were preferred for recreational use.

Keep in mind that the findings presented in this survey are intended only to provide food for thought. Much more research in this area is needed. Because of the lack of research, people tend to rely on the Internet, friends, or dispensary personnel to learn how a sativa or indica-based product may make them feel.

Whatever you may hear, the effects can differ widely from one person to the next and can be influenced by factors such as dosage, tolerance, method of use, and added ingredients.

The CBD-to-THC ratio may also matter. Generally, it’s known that products that are predominant and high in THC are more likely to cause an intoxicating “high.” And there’s some research suggesting that high doses of solely CBD (300 to 600 milligrams) may cause a calming effect.

But due to the many factors that can be of influence, it’s difficult to know exactly how a cannabis product may make you feel without trying it.

Side Effects

Cannabis use may cause side effects that can differ from person to person. Cannabis products that are CBD-predominant may cause side effects such as:

  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Anxiety
  • Dry mouth
  • Dizziness
  • Changes in appetite

Cannabis products that are THC-predominant can cause the same side effects as CBD-predominant products. But as THC specifically affects the brain, other effects can include:

  • Changes in mood
  • Altered senses
  • Impaired body movement
  • Hallucinations

Additionally, research suggests that early THC use (teenage years or younger) may impair the brain’s development process in regards to functions like memory, thinking, and learning.

Note that the method of cannabis use can contribute to side effects. For example, smoking cannabis may lead to respiratory problems, while orally ingesting cannabis may increase the chance of unintentional poisoning.

How They Compare to Cannabis Ruderalis

Cannabis ruderalis, the third categorized species of cannabis, typically doesn’t grow over two feet and is unbranched.

These plants are known to be autoflowering, meaning they have the ability to flower under any type of light. In contrast, sativa and indica plants are photoperiodic and typically need around 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness to flower.

Ruderalis plants are rarely grown by themselves. Instead, they’re commonly cross-bred with other cannabis plants to produce hybrid plants with autoflowering capabilities.

Ruderalis plants typically contain very low levels of THC with reportedly higher CBD levels.

Many botanists grow hybrids to produce plants that have unique characteristics. For example, a botanist may cross-breed a ruderalis plant with a CBD-predominant indica plant so that the hybrid can have autoflowering capabilities and a high CBD profile.

What Is a Cannabis Hybrid?

A hybrid cannabis plant is one created from the cross-breeding or cross-pollination of two different cannabis plants. The physical characteristics and CBD and THC levels of hybrids can vary depending on the parent plants.


Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa are two types of cannabis species that are proposed to cause different effects. However, the compounds within a plant can differ from others—even if two plants are the same type. That means the effects can differ too.

Indica plants typically contain higher amounts of CBD than THC, while sativa plants typically have higher amounts of THC than CBD. Indica is believed to cause more of a calming or relaxing effect, while sativa is known to cause an uplifting feeling.

Factors such as tolerance, CBD-to-THC ratio, method of use, and added ingredients can influence effects as well.

A Word From Verywell

If someone gives you advice on the effects of a sativa or indica based cannabis product, know that their advice may be from their own experience or what someone may have told them. The effects of any cannabis product depend on different factors and can vary from one person to another.

If you are interested in a product that’s marketed as being of the species sativa or indica, try getting specific data on its ingredients and the amount of CBD and THC within it for a possible idea of what effects you may experience.