Cbd oil for sleep opposite effect

Can CBD Improve Your Sleep? The Experts Weigh In

There are a lot of questions about this experimental sleep aid. Here’s what we know about CBD and sleep.

There are many proven strategies to better the quality of your sleep, such as leaning away from blue light and alcohol in the hours before you hop into bed, and opting for room-darkening curtains and keeping the temperature cool. But these days, more and more companies are marketing products that include a unique ingredient for better shuteye: CBD.

Used in everything from trendy lotions and lattes to massage oils, CBD — short for cannabidiol — is one of the most prominent chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant. While effects vary from person to person, research shows that CBD can have a calming effect on people.

Humans have been cultivating the cannabis plant since at least 4,000 B.C. Not surprisingly, we’ve developed various strains based on how the plant is used. Hemp is a cannabis plant that contains high levels of CBD and low levels of THC — or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the chemical compound that causes the “high” in cannabis plants. Marijuana, its psychoactive cousin, has low levels of CBD and high levels of THC.

Because of its THC levels and the resulting “high,” marijuana has far fewer uses than hemp. Every day, hemp is utilized in tens of thousands of ways, from rope and insulation to cooking oils, protein powders, and CBD products, which are often derived from hemp and are sometimes marketed as “THC-free.”

What the latest research says about CBD for sleep

CBD interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS), a vast receptor system that’s constantly working to maintain homeostasis as we go throughout our day. On its quest to restore balance, the ECS influences nearly every system in the human body. CBD supports the ECS, helping it respond to imbalances in inflammation, brain health, pain, the stress response, and — you guessed it — the sleep-wake cycle.

CBD is biphasic, which means low doses and high doses can cause opposite effects. Those effects also vary from person to person. Whereas melatonin puts you in a state of calmness before sleep, CBD can make you feel alert when it’s taken in low or moderate doses. In higher doses, studies have associated CBD use with increased sleep. However, in one 3-month study where participants with anxiety took 25 mg to 50 mg of CBD, researchers found that sleep improvements decreased month over month.

Researchers are continuing to explore the complex dynamics between CBD and sleep. A recent study of persons suffering from Parkinson’s disease indicated that the cannabinoid was able to reduce REM (rapid eye movement) sleep disorders. A 2019 sleep-quality study found more patients experienced improved sleep than disrupted sleep when using CBD. But when it comes to CBD and sleep, most research backs the need for further study. (One current large-scale clinical study, for example, is exploring the impacts of CBD for patients with diagnosed insomnia.)

Since research is still relatively new, there is no guidance on CBD’s long-term efficacy.

Here are other considerations:

1. Be wary of extreme promises and CBD claims

Currently the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has only approved one CBD product, and that’s for the treatment of seizures. The FDA is aware that some companies are marketing products containing CBD in ways that violate the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and that may put the health and safety of consumers at risk, and it is monitoring unproven CBD claims around serious diseases and product contamination.

To feel more confident about your purchase, you can ask the brand for a certificate of analysis (COA), which lets you know if the product contains the amount of CBD advertised.

A COA will also list:

  • how much CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids the product has
  • potential contaminants, such as heavy metals, pesticides, or microbes
  • which lab did the testing; make sure it’s a third-party lab

2. Effects will vary, based on your health

As with the 100+ other cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant, CBD can have different effects on different people. One study found that it can increase sleep duration for people with clinical conditions, while another published in Frontiers in Pharmacology found that CBD had zero impact on sleep in healthy volunteers.

Dr. Dustin Sulak, an integrative medicine physician based in Maine, has seen mixed results with patients who use CBD. “There’s a portion of people who take it before bed and sleep great, and then others who are not affected,” he says, adding that some research has found that CBD can actually keep individuals awake at night. “Like everything when it comes to cannabis, there’s a wide individual variability.”

3. Sleep issues stemming from anxiety and pain disorders may benefit from CBD

“For many people, their sleep issues may be rooted in anxiety,” says Dr. Chris Winter, sleep specialist and Sleep Advisor to Sleep.com. “It’s not that they can’t sleep, it’s that they’re scared that they cannot. That anxiety loop can make it such that people will take longer to fall asleep, and that’s where I can see CBD coming into play.”

One 2020 study found that individuals who took CBD for treatment for anxiety and depression reported less symptoms and an improvement in their ability to perform daily functions. The three-month study mentioned above also found sustained decrease in anxiety symptoms with use of CBD.

Studies show that pain, especially the anxiety around pain disrupting sleep, may be treated with CBD. One analysis concluded that CBD is effective for pain management, especially when inhaled.

Ways to use CBD

There are many methods for using CBD. Inhalation, sublingual, digestive, transdermal, topical, and intranasal are the delivery methods currently used for CBD products, and the one you choose can directly impact how quickly it enters your bloodstream — and how strongly you feel its effects.

You can use CBD through oral, inhaled, sublingual, transdermal, and topical forms such as:

  • oils, sprays and tinctures for under the tongue
  • nasal and mouth sprays
  • pills and capsules
  • juice for vape pens and vapes
  • topical oils, lotions, patches, and bath bombs
  • beverages, gummies, and other edibles
  • transdermal patches

Since the FDA doesn’t regulate CBD, it can be hard to know if the product contains the amount advertised on the packaging. An analysis of CBD products online found that 26% of products has less CBD, while 43% had more. Some products were also found to include THC, which can be dangerous for children if accidentally consumed.

If you choose to purchase a CBD product, look for labels that identify the CBD isolate and indicate whether or not the product contains broad- or full-spectrum CBD. Then check the COA to identify the level of CBD and other chemicals in the product. If a product is labeled full-spectrum CBD, then it will have trace amounts of THC and the other cannabinoids found naturally in the cannabis plant.

Some CBD products are formulated with other ingredients that help with sleep, such as lavender and melatonin.

Risks and side effects of CBD

Although researchers are still exploring CBD’s long-term implications, its documented side effects are mild. When researchers looked at people who took 1,500mg daily, experts reported that the most common issues included tiredness, diarrhea, and changes in appetite/weight.

The Mayo Clinic reports additional symptoms such as dry mouth and drowsiness. The appearance of these symptoms may depend on how much CBD you’re taking and if CBD is interacting with any existing medications you’re already taking. Talk to a doctor before adding CBD to your bedside table.

Still, Sunak says that the risks associated with CBD use are quite low. “Because it’s typically so well tolerated, even into the triple digits in terms of milligrams, that offers room for individuals to experiment with products and see how it makes them feel, especially with sleep,” he says.

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What is the bottom line on CBD?

A little fuzzy? We hear you.

If you want to completely avoid CBD, there are plenty of alternative, researched-backed supplements and techniques to try. For anxiety and stress, we love progressive muscle relaxation, essential oils, and journaling before bed. When it comes to pain and sleep, try heat compresses, massages, or switching up your pillows and mattress.

Additional reporting by Emily Hubbell

Emily Abbate is a freelance writer, certified trainer and run coach, and host of the podcast Hurdle. You can find her work in GQ, Shape, Runner’s World, and other health and fitness publications.

Does CBD help or hinder sleep?

What most of us wouldn’t give for a good night’s sleep. Without it, we can’t function at peak emotional, physical, and mental levels, yet in today’s high-stress, plugged-in world, so many of us don’t get decent sleep.

Ailments like insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and excessive daytime sleepiness cause consumers to turn to over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals for relief, yet many of these medications have their own serious side effects and adverse risks.

Catching zzz’s with CBD?

Find a CBD store near you

For that reason, many consumers are exploring natural sleep aids like cannabis. We know THC-rich varieties can help people achieve sleep, but what about those sensitive to or afraid of its intoxicating effects?

Can cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating cannabis compound, also offer sleep benefits?

CBD and sleep: What does the research say?

As CBD has exploded onto the market, consumers are turning to the cannabinoid to treat many ailments, including insomnia. The insurgence of CBD has also prompted a sizable uptick in the number of preclinical and clinical studies looking at CBD’s value in treating a whole host of disorders. However, very few studies center on CBD and sleep.

In a recent Consumer Reports survey on CBD, 10% of respondents report using CBD as a sleep aid. The majority of them said it worked, but that evidence is anecdotal. Without controlled studies, it is difficult to tell whether CBD is truly acting alone to induce sleep. There are several complicating factors.

First, high-CBD strains often contain myrcene , a terpene that is said to be sedating. Although controlled studies on humans are lacking, myrcene’s sedative effects are well established in the animal literature, and for centuries, herbalists have been using hops as a human sleep aid. As it turns out, hops have high myrcene levels.

Therefore, if a person uses a high-CBD strain and says it helps them sleep, it is hard to tell whether CBD, myrcene or the two working in combination is the active agent. However, it’s worth noting that most people aren’t smoking or vaporizing myrcene-rich CBD flowers for sleep. Rather, most are using a CBD concentrate that contains little to no myrcene whatsoever.

Very few researchers have looked at isolated CBD as a sleep aid. Instead, researchers have looked at CBD in conjunction with other cannabinoids like THC. In a 2017 extensive literature review entitled Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature, the research team found that CBD and THC were indeed the two cannabinoids most often cited as sleep-inducing aids.

Multiple cannabinoids muddy the waters

THC has a sedative effect and can reduce the time it takes to fall asleep. Some research shows that the entourage effect , or harmonized interaction between cannabis compounds like CBD and THC, seems to carry over to sleep.

Sulak explained that CBD may just be reducing symptoms like anxiety, which allows the person to relax so that their natural sleep mechanism can take over.

However, THC does not put a person in a sleep state. Neither does CBD. Instead, THC is a sedative and has other properties helpful to sleep. For example, THC makes a person feel comfortable while remaining still, called catalepsy.

Because CBD doesn’t alter consciousness in the same way that THC does, is it even possible that CBD can work alone as a sleep aid?

Dr. Dustin Sulak, DO, is the founder of Healer.com and Integr8 Health, a Maine medical practice that uses medical cannabis as a treatment for a variety of ailments. Sulak explained that CBD may actually just be reducing symptoms like anxiety, which allows the person to relax so that their natural sleep mechanism can take over.

To demonstrate Sulak’s point, here is one such published example, where a Colorado research team looked at outcomes of psychiatric patients who received CBD in a clinical setting to help with anxiety and sleep complaints. CBD was given as an adjunct to usual treatment. Within the first 30 days of CBD use, anxiety decreased in nearly 80% of patients and sleep scores improved by nearly 70%. CBD was well tolerated by the vast majority of patients.

But was CBD directly responsible for this outcome? And, given that a fairly large group of people with insomnia also have depression and anxiety , what exactly is CBD working on? This is where the waters become even more muddied.

Sulak’s practice has over 8,000 patients, so he sees the connection between sleep and chronic disease every day. “Sleep is extremely important,” he said. “Almost all of our most prevalent chronic diseases require healthy sleep for the patient to get better.”

Sulak said that if he can fix a patient’s sleep disturbance, it serves as a unifying treatment that can help multiple patient conditions like diabetes and chronic pain. While Sulak does treat sleep disorders, he very rarely does so with CBD in any form, whether pure CBD or a CBD-dominant cannabis strain.

Instead, Sulak often uses THC with a sedating terpene profile. He achieves excellent results, even when using low doses.

The dosing dilemma

Depending on who you ask, CBD has been reported as having either a stimulating or a calming effect, thus adding confusion to the overall equation. While there is very little published evidence regarding dosing, research to date indicates that at higher doses, CBD has a calming effect; yet at lower doses, CBD has a stimulating effect.

In a 1977 animal study, the “ hypnotic-like effects ” of CBD were first studied. Since then, very few CBD dosing studies have been performed, but the evidence seems to indicate that the effectiveness of CBD depends on whether the person has a normal sleep rhythm or whether the person has a sleep disorder.

In a 2018 study on 27 healthy subjects , a high CBD dose (300 mg) qualifying as a clinically anxiolytic dose had no effect on the sleep-wake cycle. CBD was given 30 minutes prior to bedtime and sleep recordings were made for eight hours thereafter.

In a similar study, very high CBD doses (600 mg) had a sedative effect, but in subjects with insomnia, much lower doses of 160 mg reduced sleep disruption and increased total sleep duration. Conversely, very low doses of 25 mg had no effect.

CBD and REM sleep

CBD has been found to help with certain sleep anomalies that occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. There are two types of sleep: non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. NREM sleep progresses through a 90-minute cycle leading up to REM sleep, in which brain wave activity increases and dreaming occurs. REM sleep is also the time when previously learned is solidified into a memory.

In normal REM sleep, the limb muscles become temporarily paralyzed so that a person cannot act out dreams. In Parkinson’s disease as well as REM behavior disorder , people are able to flail and act out vivid and violent dreams. CBD at doses ranging from 75 to 300 mg was shown in a preliminary study to help these patients, and in an early case study, high-dose CBD helped a pediatric PTSD patient .

Low-dose CBD formulations seem to keep people awake and not alter the sleep cycle. However, this may one day prove beneficial for circadian rhythm disorders like excessive daytime sleepiness and narcolepsy because they may help people stay awake during daylight hours.

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So, should you be using CBD for sleep?

Every individual’s body is unique, and therefore the effect of CBD will be highly individualized. Sulak explained that he would be open to using CBD in his own practice if a patient had not responded well to THC. Some patients are extraordinarily sensitive to THC and have symptoms during the night or still feel impaired in the morning. Sulak said he would likely select CBD strains that contained high levels of myrcene (luckily, there are plenty of options ).

Sulak said that CBD may offer benefit for people with sleep disturbances, and he feels it is important to move forward with pragmatically designed clinical trials, meaning a trial that does not provide every patient with the same exact treatment. Instead, an algorithm type approach would be used, starting with one treatment and moving to others if the previous ones are unsuccessful.

Sulak also stated that Americans are desperately in need of education on understanding sleep hygiene and the critical importance of sleep for health and happiness. “Most people don’t know that sleep disturbances are associated with decreased analgesic (pain-relieving effects) of opioids and antidepressant drugs, so it’s such a vicious cycle,” he said. “It’s wonderful to use cannabis to break that cycle,” Sulak said.

CBD is safe, even at high doses

Sulak said that he ensures his patients that CBD is extraordinarily safe, so if it is not effective at low to moderate doses of 10 to 50 mg, CBD is safe to try at higher doses of 100 to 200mg. In a 2018 study , single doses of 1,500 mg, 3,000 mg or 6,000 mg were administered to healthy subjects daily for six days. While the study was not aimed at researching CBD’s effects on sleep, it demonstrated that CBD is indeed safe.

However, it’s important to note that research has a long way to go in establishing drug interactions associated with cannabinoids. While CBD appears to be safe on its own, consider consulting a medical professional before adding CBD or other cannabis products to your regimen.

Despite the overall lack of CBD sleep studies, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine concluded in a 2017 report that moderate evidence exists for cannabinoids to improve short-term sleep outcomes in a variety of conditions. As more research is conducted, CBD may well benefit patients who have ailments like obstructive sleep apnea, fibromyalgia, chronic pain, and anxiety.

Hemp Oil For Sleep and Insomnia: CBD, CBN and More

Hemp oil, or more specifically, full spectrum hemp oil which is rich in CBD, CBN, and other phenolic compounds with sedative properties may be a promising natural sleep remedy.

Sleepiness is estimated to cost the United States $411 billion dollars annually, a whopping 2.28% of our GDP. According to the National Institutes of Health, over one-third of American adults report daytime sleepiness that interferes with work, social functioning and driving at least a few days out of every month.

Studies have established a clear link between hemp oil phenolics (e.g. cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids and others) and sleep, supporting hemps role as a natural sleep aid with few to no side effects.

Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids such as CBD, CBN, and THC are a unique type of phenolic compound produced by hemp flowers or buds. They are unique because they can interact with our body’s endocannabinoid system, which plays an important role in sleep and relaxation.

Cannabidiol, or CBD, the main cannabinoid found in hemp oil has been found to lead to sedation or sleepiness in higher doses and wakefulness in lower doses. In contrast, cannabinol (CBN) has the opposite effect: triggering sedation in low doses and wakefulness in higher doses.

Unlike the high producing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD and CBN do not make you high. They also have not been reported to lead to major negative psychological side effects such as anxiety, paranoia, and memory impairment, making their therapeutic benefits useful in everyday situations.

While the majority of cannabis research has focused on the cannabinoids CBD and THC, recent findings suggests that the cannabinoid CBN may be an even more potent sedative than other cannabinoids found in hemp.

Because the amount of CBN, even in full spectrum hemp oil, is limited, we created a CBD + CBN Sleep Blend that features added CBN along with organic and wildcrafted botanicals used in traditional sleep remedies.

Other Phenolics

In addition to cannabinoids, full spectrum hemp oil is also rich in other phenolic compounds which studies have shown to possess calming and sedative qualities that may help the body to ease into more restful sleep.

These phenolic compounds are what makes full spectrum hemp oil so special. Whereas isolated cannabinoids may have limited effects when administered alone, when they are administered with the other phenolics in full spectrum oil, they act synergistically to enhance each other’s desired effects.

Hemp Oil and Sleep Research

Cannabinoids have long been shown to affect the sleep-wake cycle. Preliminary research and anecdotal evidence strongly suggest the therapeutic potential of full spectrum hemp oil in helping alleviate insomnia and promoting more restful sleep.

Despite studies examining the effects of cannabinoid administration on sleep dating back to the 1970s, few clinical trials exist. Thus, hemp oil’s mechanisms of action and dose-response remain somewhat ambiguous.

Research into the effects of cannabinoids (mainly THC) on the sleep cycle began in the 1970s and a link was established early on. It wasn’t until more recently, however, that researchers became aware of the many varying effects triggered by the more than 100 different cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. This awareness was a critical turning point in the discovery of CBD’s sedative and non-psychoactive effects making it a prime target for sleep therapy research.

CBD, THC and other cannabinoids like CBN interact with our body’s endocannabinoid system. Every human, dog, cat, mammal, amphibian, and even the ancient sea squirt possesses an internal cannabinoid system.

Implicated in a wide variety of biological functions, the endocannabinoid system has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm sleep-wake cycle.

Available data supports a relationship between endocannabinoid signaling and sleep wake cycle processes (Vaugn, et al 2010) indicating that the endocannabinoid system has the capability to modulate circadian rhythms (Sanford, 2008).

When our endocannabinoid systems are activated by either internal (i.e. anandamide or 2-AG) or external cannabinoids like CBD, CBN, or THC, a number of beneficial reactions are triggered in our bodies. Sedation, anxiolytic effects, neuroprotection, neurogenesis or the formation of new brain cells, anti-inflammatory effects, pain relief, a boost in metabolism, feelings of improved well being and a positive impact on brain levels of the depression-related neurotransmitter serotonin have all been observed.

In light of these effects, it is somewhat unclear how much of the sleep improvements experienced by hemp oil users are related to these other benefits versus a direct effect on the sleep cycle.

THC and Sleep

Though the link between cannabinoids and the sleep cycle was established decades ago, it was limited by our incomplete understanding of cannabis and its constituents.

Early research from the 1970s included several sleep studies that recorded brain waves, blood oxygen level, heart rate, and breathing, as well as leg and eye movements. These studies found that cannabis had an effect on sleep, but perhaps because they mainly looked at THC rich marijuana, their findings were mixed.

For instance, one THC study showed a decrease in sleep onset latency, or the time it takes individuals to transition from full wakefulness to sleep (Cousens & DiMascio, 1973), while different studies did not replicate these findings.

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Another study examining the effects of THC observed increased waking after sleep onset and a decrease in REM sleep (Pivik et al, 1972). REM, or rapid eye movement sleep, is a phase of sleep unique to birds and mammals. It is generally characterized by low muscle tone throughout the body, vivid dreaming, and random/rapid movement of the eyes.

REM is the 5th stage of sleep and happens throughout the sleep cycle. Experts believe REM sleep helps us process emotions and solidify certain memories, but researchers are unclear as to how much REM sleep is optimal and whether varying amounts can be pathological. For example, one recent study found an association between higher amounts of REM sleep and depression, but it was unclear whether one caused the other.

Other THC work from this period found a decrease in slow-wave sleep latency, an increase in slow-wave sleep, and an increase in total sleep time (Feinberg, et al. 1975 & Barratt et al, 1974). Slow-wave sleep, or SWS, refers to phase 3 of the sleep cycle. Thought to play an important role in memory consolidation, SWS sleep is the deepest phase of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Sleepwalking and dreaming can occur during SWS.

As the research community’s understanding of cannabis and its constituents became more sophisticated and the varying effects of different cannabinoids were discovered, researchers began focusing on the types of cannabinoids (THC vs CBD vs CBN), the ratio of cannabinoids, dosage, the timing of administration, and the route of administration, all of which have been demonstrated to play a critical role in sleep outcomes.

CBD and Sleep

CBD has been found to have biphasic effects on wakefulness. In low doses, CBD acts as a stimulant (Carlini & Cunha, 1981, Nicholson et al 2004). In medium and higher doses CBD exhibits sedative properties (Nicholson et al 2004, Zuardi 2008). These sedative properties have made CBD a viable research target for sleep disorders.

In 1981, Carlini and Cunha published a CBD study on individuals with insomnia. They showed that administration of 160 mg/day of CBD resulted in increased total sleep time and decreased frequency of nighttime arousals. Although their study showed that CBD administration reduced dream recall, they did not find CBD to produce any ‘hangover’ effects.

In 2004 Nicholson and colleagues published a pilot study in humans showing that high-dose CBD was associated with sleep improvements. Further, unlike the use of THC as a sleep aid, which studies have reported to produce next-day memory impairment as well as increased sleepiness and mood changes, CBD did not appear to result in these negative side effects.

In a 2012 study examining the effect of medium and high dose CBD in rats, Hsiao and colleagues found that CBD blocked anxiety-induced REM sleep suppression and increased the percentage of total sleep time.

Similarly, in 2013, Chagas and colleagues published a study that found an increase in the total percentage of sleep in rats after the administration of mid-range and high-dose CBD injections as compared to placebo.

The following year, Chagas and colleagues published another study on four adults with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and Parkinson’s disease. RBD is characterized by the loss of muscle rigidity during REM sleep accompanying nightmares and can involve individuals acting out behaviors associated with dreams. Their study found that CBD was tolerated well by all patients and efficacious in suppressing behaviors associated with RBD.

A recent and allegedly first of its kind double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical study from the Center for Applied Health Sciences looked at the effects of CBD rich hemp oil extract consumption on 65 overweight, but otherwise healthy adults. Individuals who took the hemp oil extract every day over a period of six weeks experienced a 22% improvement in sleep quality and a 21% improvement in sleep quantity. They also reported experiencing a 12.5% improvement in pleasure from life.

Another study from the University of Colorado and Colorado State University recorded the effects of hemp oil use on 72 patients with anxiety and sleep-related disorders over a month-long period. After one month of hemp oil use, 67% of participants reported improved sleep, while 79% reported experiencing less anxiety.

In a 2018 study by Vigil and colleagues, 409 individuals with insomnia used a mobile app to measure which characteristics of medical Cannabis flower were associated with changes in perceived insomnia. Participants recorded real-time ratings of self-perceived insomnia severity levels prior to and following consumption over 1056 cannabis administration sessions. The study found that while cannabis as a whole improved sleep rating, CBD was associated with greater statistically significant symptom relief than THC.

How to Use Hemp Oil as a Sleep Aid

Although research is still in its infancy, studies point to the ability of medium to high doses of CBD to increase total sleep time, decrease the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, and reduce problem sleep behaviors like RBD related sleepwalking and the number of times individuals wake during the night.

If you are ready to try CBD as a sleep aid, be sure to select a high-quality hemp product and a healthy method of administration. CBD rich full-spectrum hemp oils can be vaporized, taken orally, and applied as topical treatments, which is probably not the best administration choice for alleviating insomnia.

Because there are some bioavailability caveats when it comes to edibles, we recommend holding the full spectrum hemp oil under your tongue for one or two minutes to get the most out of your product. This method helps your body absorb the highest concentration of CBD without any harmful side effects.

Check that your oil is produced from a proven cannabis source like an all-natural Colorado sunshine fueled hemp-farm run by farmers who care about the integrity of their product. Make sure the company you source from has not watered down the product with fillers. Avoid anything with corn syrup, propylene glycol, GMOs, pesticides, trans fats, or artificial additives.

Look for products that are cold processed and lab tested. Lab testing can help assure consistency and verify that the product you’re receiving is free of bacteria, pesticides, solvent residues, mold, and other contaminants.

References

Carlini EA, Cunha JM. Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;21(8–9 Suppl):417S–27S.

Chagas MH, Crippa JA, Zuardi AW, Hallak JE, Machado-de-Sousa JP, Hirotsu C, et al. Effects of acute systemic administration of cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle in rats. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27(3):312–6

Chagas MH, Eckeli AL, Zuardi AW, Pena-Pereira MA, SobreiraNeto MA, Sobreira ET, et al. Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2014;39(5):564–6.

Cousens K, DiMascio A. (−) Delta 9 THC as an hypnotic. An experimental study of three dose levels. Psychopharmacologia. 1973;33(4):355–64.

Hsiao YT, Yi PL, Li CL, Chang FC. Effect of cannabidiol on sleep disruption induced by the repeated combination tests consisting of open field and elevated plus-maze in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62(1):373–84

Nicholson, A. N., Turner, C., Stone, B. M., & Robson, P. J. (2004). Effect of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 24(3), 305-313.

Pivik RT, Zarcone V, Dement WC, Hollister LE. Delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol and synhexl: effects on human sleep patterns. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1972;13(3):426–35.

Sanford AE. Cannabinoids and hamster circadian activity rhythms. Brain Res. 2008;1222:141–8.

Vaughn LK, Denning G, Stuhr KL, de Wit H, Hill MN, Hillard CJ. Endocannabinoid signalling: has it got rhythm? Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160(3):530–43

Vigil, J., Stith, S., Diviant, J., Brockelman, F., Keeling, K, & Hall, B. (2018). Effectiveness of raw, natural medical Cannabis flower for treating insomnia under naturalistic conditions. Medicines, 5(3), 75.

Zuardi AW. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2008;30(3):271– 80.