Using CBD (Cannabidiol) to Treat the Symptoms of Alzheimer’s & Other Dementias
CBD (aka Cannabidiol) is a compound derived from the Cannabis plant that has positive medicinal effects but does not make people feel “high” or anxious. CBD, in various forms, is legal in 48 US States. The states where it remains illegal are Idaho, and South Dakota, though in SD it will be legal beginning in July 2021. For much more on legality, see below.
CBD should not be confused with Marijuana or the THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) compound which is known for generating a “high” with users. CBD is derived from Cannabis plants, similar to how caffeine is derived from the coffee bean, or aspirin from the bark of a Willow tree. CBD oil is the most common form of administration of the compound, with the oil contained in a gel cap or dropper bottle.
Another chemical in cannabis plants that shows medical benefits similar to CBD is called cannabigerol, or CBG. CBG comes from young marijuana plants and, like CBD, does not get users high. CBG may be useful for treating a specific type of dementia called Huntington’s disease. For more, see below.
CBD Health Benefits for Dementia
The dementia-related conditions that can be helped by CBD include: Alzheimer’s disease, Vascular Dementia, Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson’s disease, Frontotemporal dementia and Huntington’s disease.
According to researchers at California’s Salk Institute, their 2016 study found evidence that cannabinoids such as CBD could help remove dementia from, and increase connections between, brain cells. Those results were validated by other laboratories. While the US Food and Drug Administration has yet to approve a CBD drug for the purposes of treating dementia, it has approved a CBD-based drug called Epidiolex for treating epilepsy.
There are several ways CBD can work to improve health outcomes for persons with dementia: by reducing inflammation, by reducing oxygen buildup, by working as a brain stimulant and neuroprotectant, and by eliminating dead brain cells and the protein tangles that are believed to cause brain ailments including dementia. From a user’s perspective, CBD may improve movement while reducing stress and anxiety in the individual with dementia, as well as reduce the decline of memory and other brain functions.
It should be noted that controversy surrounds CBD and the claims companies have made as to its positive effects. The FDA warns that CBD can cause liver injury (as shown in some animal experiments with super high doses) and affect metabolism of other drugs. The agency also says that long-term side effects remain unknown.
The topic of CBD health benefits continues to grow with new CBD and Alzheimer’s research. In recent studies, CBD has been shown to reduce or remove the impact of inflammation, oxygen buildup and brain cell decline. CBD also increases levels of proteins that eliminate dead cells and plaques in brains with Alzheimer’s, improving both memory and motor function.
When the brain’s immune cells fail to clear blockages associated with Alzheimer’s disease, the result is an inflammatory response. When inflammation happens in the brain, oxygen is released as a result. The greater the inflammation, the greater the negative impact. Important brain functions such as memory are decreased as more oxygen is released in the brain’s cells. Memory loss and other brain deterioration indirectly leads to increased oxygen in the brain. CBD is an antioxidant, which helps reduce the problems associated with oxygen stress. Brain functions negatively impacted by oxygen stress can be improved by using CBD.
Alzheimer’s patients’ brain cells often show a path of rapid decline and destruction. The potential of stimulating brain tissue was recently discovered as a potential benefit of CBD. In clinical trials, CBD has shown the ability to reverse and even prevent the development of Alzheimer’s negative impact. A 2011 study by Australian researchers Tim Karl and Carl Group found that CBD promotes the growth and development of brain cells, reducing the decline of memory and other brain functions.
More recently, in a study researchers were able to increase levels of proteins in the brain (called IL-33 and TREM2) that maintain cognitive functions by eliminating dead cells and helping clear beta-amyloid plaque tangles associated with the disease. After CBD was regularly injected into mice afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease, scientists noticed major improvements in their ability to think. Specifically, the mice could better tell the difference between old objects and new ones. The mice’s movement improved, as well. People with Alzheimer’s often develop stiffness that affects their ability to walk, and mice with these same symptoms will continuously walk in a tight circle. After CBD treatments, that behavior stopped.
Vascular dementia is a general term describing problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, memory and other thought processes caused by brain damage from impaired blood flow to one’s brain. To effectively treat vascular dementia, a 2016 study by the US National Institute of Health (NIH) found that activating CB2 (cannabinoid) receptors in the brain helped recover better blood flow to the brain. Activating the CB2 receptors with CBD has increased brain cell activity and helped reduce brain cell damage commonly associated with vascular dementia.
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a disease associated with abnormal deposits of a protein called alpha-synuclein in the brain. These deposits, called Lewy bodies, affect chemicals in the brain whose changes, in turn, can lead to problems with thinking, sleeping, movement, behavior, and mood. Unlike most pain, anxiety or behavior management drugs, CBD does not block acetylcholine, the main chemical that LBD attacks. Research has shown that CBD can be an effective anti-inflammatory agent, reduce motor symptoms (tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia) and maintain circadian (sleep) rhythms.
Parkinson’s is a chronic progressive disease of the nervous system chiefly affecting middle-aged and elderly people. Parkinson’s is linked to decreased dopamine production and marked by tremor, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement. Digestive imbalance may also play a role in the progression of Parkinson’s and the severity of symptoms. Cannabinoids such as CBD have been shown to contain effective brain protectors, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties which can be beneficial for managing Parkinson’s disease. Read more about Parkinson’s and CBD.
Frontotemporal Dementia / Pick’s Disease
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or frontotemporal degenerations refers to a group of disorders caused by progressive nerve cell loss in the brain’s frontal lobes (the areas behind one’s forehead) or its temporal lobes (the regions behind one’s ears) that leads to symptoms of depression and psychosis. Unlike most antipsychotic drugs, CBD does not lead to an increased risk of death. Research has shown that CBD can be an effective anti-inflammatory agent, reduce anxiety, reduce motor symptoms (tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia) and maintain circadian (sleep) rhythms.
Huntington’s disease (HD), also known as Huntington’s chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells. The earliest symptoms are often subtle problems with mood or mental abilities. A general lack of coordination and an unsteady gait often follow. According to 2016 research from the University of Madrid, due to CBD’s effectiveness as antioxidants and its anti-inflammatory properties, CBD can be beneficial for managing Huntington’s disease. Experiments with mice have shown that another chemical called cannabigerol, or CBG, in marijuana plants can help maintain brain health for people with Huntington’s (see next section).
What is CBG? (CBG vs. CBD)
Another cannabinoid (compound in cannabis) that has shown health benefits is cannabigerol, also known as CBG. Often taken as an oil, like CBD, CBG is rarer than CBD and THC because there is much less of it in a plant. Whereas cannabis strains usually contain about 25% THC and 20% CBD, the compound CBG makes up only about 1% of most plants. CBG can, however, be extracted at higher volumes if the plants are harvested at the right age, meaning younger. CBG turns into CBD and THC as the plant gets older.
CBG binds to cannabinoid receptors in the body, strengthening neurotransmitters (brain cells) that specifically function to do things like motivate us and regulate our appetites and sleeping patterns. Studies have even shown that CBG protects nerve cells in the brain.
Unfortunately, those studies were done on the brains of mice, not humans (specifically, mice with an experimental model of Huntington’s disease). There are actually fewer studies on CGB in humans than the other cannabinoids, so while there is a strong case to be made that CGB works as a neuroprotectant that preserves nerve cells in the brain, the evidence is slimmer.
Like CBD, CGB is non-psychotropic and won’t get you high. A key difference between CBD and CBG is that CBG is harder to extract and therefore more expensive.
Risks & Side Effects
The World Health Organization (WHO) stated that “no public health problems… have been associated with the use of pure CBD,” and there has been no known association with potential for dependence or abuse, unlike most pharma alternatives. The most commonly reported potential side effects of CBD usage were diarrhea and bloating, with some also reporting nausea. About 3% of patients in studies reported liver problems and had to discontinue CBD use. Specifically, in dementia, some patients reported increased tremor with high doses of CBD. As with any new treatment, patients and caregivers should monitor effects and outcomes closely.
Full-Spectrum vs. Isolated CBD
CBD comes in either “full-spectrum” or “isolated” form. The difference is that full-spectrum includes other compounds besides just CBD: cannabinoids (THC and others), terpenes (plant chemicals), and flavonoids (natural plant antioxidants). CBD isolate has been processed into a powder without those natural chemicals. Full-spectrum has more health benefits than isolate.
Misperceptions & Myths
1) CBD is non-psychoactive and medicinal while THC is recreational, not medicinal
CBD (cannabidiol) has been shown to have antipsychotic and anti-anxiety effects in humans. This does not mean it is non-psychoactive, but rather that the psychoactive effects are often beneficial and non-intoxicating vs. the “high” feelings of the THC (aka Tetrahydrocannabinol) compound. THC has also shown medicinal benefits for patients, particularly those suffering from pain or inflammation, especially when combined with CBD for consumption by patients.
2) CBD is a sedative and reduces awareness or alertness
Even in high doses (600mg), CBD has not produced sedating effects in healthy humans. CBD usually makes humans feel more awake and alert without negative impact on sleeping patterns. What is more likely happening is that cannabis strains being used by a patient that have high levels of CBD also contain a potentially sedating natural oil (terpene) such as myrcene.
3) All CBD sources are the same
There are multiple sources of CBD such as hemp, medical cannabis and isolate. Hemp-based CBD is plagued by mislabeling and recent studies have found that only 31% of 84 tested hemp-based CBD products were accurately labeled. Medical, locally sourced cannabis has consistently produced the best CBD source as it is held to stricter laboratory testing for potency and contaminants. If you’re ordering CBD online, know that mislabeling is common, and look for products that have been third-party tested, meaning independent testing has shown the stated percentages are correct.
4) CBD is legal in all 50 States
Despite CBD being sold in health food stores, tobacco shops, on Amazon, etc., and legalization by many US States, the Federal government has not legalized CBD-rich medical cannabis, even when there is little or no THC included. Hemp-based CBD (with less than 0.3% THC) would not technically have this restriction, but the sourcing and labeling risks are many. Officials in Idaho and South Dakota have said they still consider hemp-based CBD illegal, though South Dakota voters recently voted to change the law and cannabis will become legal for personal use there beginning in July 2021.Medical-based CBD has been legalized in more than 30 states and is recreationally legal in a growing number of US locations. The US Federal Drug Administration recently has approved one CBD medication, Epidiolex, to treat rare forms of epilepsy in patients 2 years and older.
Avoid CBD Scams! Legitimate CBD products will be precisely labeled with information including:
– Amount of active CBD per serving
– Other ingredients
– Manufacturer name
– Suggested use
– Lab testing results
Every batch of CBD should be tested before it’s put into stores to sell.
Forms of CBD Administration
CBD comes in many forms. It can be inhaled or taken in pill format as an oil, to name just a few options. Most CBD patients prefer non-inhalable options, such as CBD-rich cannabis oil products that can be consumed orally (such as gel caps), squeezed under the tongue (with liquid dropper) or delivered via patches on the skin (like Band-Aids). Inhalters, like those used by people with asthma, that deliver CBD are also available. The effects of orally administered CBD can last for up to 4 hours, and the onset of effects has shown to take between 30-90 minutes.
In cases of acute symptoms that require immediate attention, inhalation of concentrated CBD-rich cannabis effects can be felt within 2-3 minutes and last up to 1 or 2 hours. Inhalation can be achieved either through smoking of CBD-rich cannabis flower, or through increasingly popular vaporizer ‘pens’. Both forms are widely available at medical marijuana dispensaries.
Did You Know? CBD oil in vape pens sometimes contains a solvent called “propylene glycol,” which degrades when burned at high temperatures and can have serious side effects. Try to find “solvent free” CBD vape pens.
Legal Status of CBD in the U.S. (as of May 2021)
Despite CBD being sold in health food stores, tobacco shops, on Amazon, etc., its legal status remains convoluted. The federal government has said since 2018 that CBD with less than 0.3%THC is federally legal. Individual states, however, have their own rules.
Laws by State
CBD and medical cannabis is legally available to all adult users (21+) in Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington. Legally recognized state ID is required for purchase.
CBD and medical cannabis is legally available by prescription only in Alabama,, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
CBD is also available with limited THC content in states such as Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas.
CBD in all forms is prohibited in Idaho and South Dakota. After July 1, 2021, however, CBD and other cannabinoids will be legal for personal use in South Dakota. Idaho will be the only state where possession of cannabis remains illegal for all residents.
In spite of the diverse legal status in different states, CBD can be purchased online and delivered legally to all 50 states.
CBD can also be used legally in most states by residents of assisted living and memory care communities. Read more.
The most common means to obtain CBD rich medical marijuana is from a state licensed dispensary. These dispensaries can be found by searching on any number of dispensary directories (Leafly, Yelp, etc.) or Google Maps.
For those that have trouble with transportation, another increasingly available option would include delivery-based options. However, while convenient for senior patients, these options are not available in every city or town.
Finally, CBD can be purchased over the Internet and delivered to all 50 states. One reputable seller is CBDPure. One can visit their website here.
Given the lack of regulation in the CBD marketplace and given the challenges of self-reporting of the benefits with persons with dementia, getting the CBD dosage correct is especially challenging. Even though no prescription is required to purchase CBD, many doctors are still knowledgeable about the product and can provide dosage recommendations. Furthermore, given many persons with dementia take multiple medications, it is worth researching drug-drug interactions when considering CBD. CBD dosage consultations can be arranged online with a doctor for about $60. This is a preferable approach to proceeding without professional medical input. However, it is unlikely one’s insurance would pay for these online dosage consultations.
Should one proceed in testing CBD’s impact on a loved one’s dementia, it’s best to start with the gel cap form of administration as the levels of CBD are consistent (when compared to a dropper) and the act of swallowing a pill is familiar. A further benefit is the once-daily scheduling. While many of CBD’s hypothetical benefits cannot be easily observed, loved ones should pay careful attention for behavior changes. Persons with dementia who appear calmer or experience less severe sundowning symptoms may be benefitting from CBD. Another area in which CBD’s impact may be observed is in reducing sleeplessness.
Finding the Right Dose
It’s a good idea to start small and slowly increase the dosage. Begin with between 1 and 2 milligrams per day for one week, and increase by 2 to 3 milligrams weekly until you notice improvements in symptoms. Base the dosage on body weight: go smaller if your loved one is particularly light, and give a slightly larger dose for a heavier person. A normal dose for an average adult is around 5 milligrams. You may not want to exceed that number. Again, consult a doctor as you would with any other new supplement or medication.
Insurance Coverage of CBD
At this early stage of development, there are few options covered by insurance. The Food and Drug Administration would need to sign off, and as of now there is only one CBD drug (Epidiolex, for epilepsy) with FDA approval. However, when compared to the prices of alternative pharmaceuticals, patients and caregivers may still find that CBD-based medical marijuana is a more cost effective and safer option.
Does Medicare cover CBD? Because of the federal prohibitions on prescribing Schedule 1 substances, there is no Medicare coverage for the purchase of medical marijuana or CBD derivatives. Any out-of-pocket costs one would incur purchasing marijuana for medical use will not count toward any deductibles under Part B or a Medicare Prescription Drug Plan.
Medicinal cannabis is not covered by Medicaid, private plans, group plans, the Veterans Administration (VA) or Obamacare plans.
MMJ and Sundowners (treating dementia with marijuana)
As the number of states legalizing medical marijuana/cannabis are increasing across the United States, many families and caregivers of individuals with cognitive decline are beginning to ask if the herbal supplement may be a good option for their loved one. With the availability of safe, legal cannabis, an increasing number of individuals are finding that treating dementia with cannabis may be a viable option.
A brief history of medical cannabis use
Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for well over 5000 years, and it was not until 1941, in response to articles that have since been proven false published in the late 20’s, that it was removed from the US pharmacopia. In recent years, many western countries have begun limited medical marijuana allowances, with a strongly positive response from patients and indications that the drug is primarily being used among patients to successfully treat the various physical and mental challenges it was prescribed to address.
What symptoms medical marijuana may alleviate
Use of certain strains of medical cannabis has been demonstrated anecdotally and scientifically to alleviate various symptoms of aging, including symptoms prominent for a loved one with sundowners. It is effective in treating insomnia, and calming down anxiety. It also has strong effects of calming down problematic behaviors, including panic driven flight responses or violence. Marijuana also has a potent pain relieving effect, and if your loved one is nearing the end of their lives may be a gentle way to help them stay calm and comfortable in their final weeks or months.
Will it harm my loved ones memory?
Given the long association with marijuana and memory problems, it is natural that someone who is already helping a loved one through cognitive decline would be worried about potential side effects that may worsen the condition. While it’s true that cannabis may induce some short-term memory loss (namely, an individual may not be able to clearly remember things moment to moment while the marijuana is active in their system), it has only demonstrated long term memory loss effects with chronic use over several years, or use early in brain development. Promising studies have also demonstrated that THC, the active compound in marijuana, may in fact delay the formation of brain clogging Alzheimers plaque better than pharmaceuticals currently available on the market.
How to find safe, legal medical marijuana
First, find out whether or not your state has medical marijuana laws in effect. If your state does support medical marijuana, your public health department or basic internet searching should help you find the process for gaining access to dispensaries, which varies state to state. You may need to see one or several doctors to confirm a diagnoses for the prescription. These specialists will also help determine which strain or hybrid is best for your loved ones specific situation, as different types of marijuana are bred to amplify different therapeutic effects. Once you have the prescription, you will go to a dispensary, where pharmacy grade, medically regulated marijuana is sold. There will be a variety of options to choose from, including herbs for smoking, oils, resins, different kinds of smoking apparatus, and edible goods such as candies, cookies, or butter. You may need to experiment a little bit to find out what works best for your loved one: smoked cannabis tends to act faster and stronger, whereas ingested tends to last longer and take a while to set in. Depending on what symptoms it is being used to treat, and your loved ones feelings about the various options, it may take some experimentation before you find what works for you.
Treating dementia with cannabis – your story.
An increasing number of families of individuals experiencing cognitive decline are coming forward and sharing their stories on the Internet, for other caregivers to gain hope and advice from. In one inspirational story from Skunk Pharm Research LLC, introduction of medical marijuana to a mother who had become increasingly violent and aggressive as her Alzheimers worsened brought a woman comfort and peace in her last years of life, and reunited a family. You can read their moving story here. We would like to extend an invitation to you, our readers, to share your own stories, if you have one to share. By collecting stories and hosting them on our site (with your permission, and anonymously if requested), you can help educate and inspire families like your own. If you have a story concerning the use of medical cannabis in the treatment of sundowner syndrome or dementia, please share it with our readers below.
In early 2015, Green Flower Media launched a service that set out to answer all the questions we have about cannabis. Its goal being to educate. It’s a large undertaking, but with so much that is still unknown, Max Simon and his team have more than enough myths to debunk and new areas to explore. It is a Brave New World and GreenFlower is here to explain it to us. Knowledge is power.
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A Senior Alternative
California’s Senior Medical Cannabis Market is definitely leading the way in the US. Here is a chart from the team of David Downs and John Blanchard at The Chronicle. For more great information on the topic of cannabis use and the aging see the Green State: Seniors’ guide to Cannabis.
Debbie Hutton says
My mother has vascular dementia and I have been trying to have her perscribed medicinal marijuana for a year now with no luck. It is extremely frustrating when doctors tell me that the research is not there to support giving it to her. This is my mother, and I am fully able to decide what is best for her and what I am willing to do.
Jose Broto says
Try lemon drops with 100 mg label (not particularly accurate, but consistent). Research is lacking so be consistent. Track sleep rythym and mood on week prior. Try a three day regimen: 1 per day 3 hours before regular fall asleep dependably time. Keep a chart.
madeline bravo says
i also use the lemon drop candies,100mg/10mgs each.OMG,what a difference.instead of the anxiety and suspicion,we laugh and reminisce before she falls asleep.it’s a blessing
I have tried 4 different candies for my dad and all the do is amp him up. I have been told to stay away from stativa (sp). Dispensary told me what I recently purchased had none. My dad paces the floor even more when he takes. What am I doing wrong? What is this “oil” I read people talk about?
hey there, he is amped up because of the sativa. indaca is the relaxing one..just remember in-da-ca=in da couch lol..i had a bad experience taking a sativa capsule,,felt like cocaine..get a pure indaca..the OIL is VERY IMPORTANT ..it is CBD OIL,the non-active part. thats what people get major results from also. you cant give them too much.try and get the concentrate for under the tongue.i just got my papaw CBD tincture. u can get it in lotions for arthritis,crystal form to put in a drink,vaporizer..get strong CBD and load them up.increase to find relief
Marianne Bays says
My Dad’s 92 and had become mostly angry, agitated and confused. I started him on a 5mg THC infused hard candy taken before bed, and his behavior changed immediately and stayed calm the entire next day. His mind seems clearer too. 5mg is a microdose, but because the elderly have slower metabolism, it lasted the whole day. Now, after several months, his tolerance level has increased and we have upped the dosage to 5mg at bed and 5mg in late morning. It’s still microdosing .. and we have the ability to increase or decrease the dosage as Dad needs.
Kimberly Blackwood says
Are you giving him thc or CBD gummies …cbd does not work for everyone . You may want to research RSO ( rick Simpson oil)